CAD/CAM systems in dentistry
Cad/Cam-technology in dentistry for 3d-modeling of teeth is a new project to automate and autonomize the laboratory of dental equipment. By applying it in practice, you will achieve improvement in the quality of products, their improvement and reduce production time.
Computer-Aided Design / Computer-Aided Manufacture, abbreviated as CAD. They appeared in the 1980s and met in a completely different area, namely, in the industry for the production of metal-cutting machine tools for high-precision machining of parts and the production of automobiles. In recent decades, this niche has been developed and implemented in various fields, including dental one. Now computer programs and equipment help at all stages – from development to the execution of finished parts. Therefore, no area of medicine is left without the help of innovative electronic technologies.
Cad/Cam technologies and systems in dentistry, along with materials that don’t contain metal, are used by practicing doctors and major laboratories for the production of:
- milled ceramic crowns;
- all-ceramic bridges;
- abutments in implantation.
The program can recreate a volumetric anatomical shape for press ceramics, which is applied to the frame, design temporary crowns in full profile and visualize other injection molding models.
Over time, computer technology and materials have been improved and transformed. Cad/Cam dentistry involves computer-aided design and product development techniques that are used as an alternative to the manual drawing method. The object is viewed at any angle, and its projection can be viewed in a certain light. Any parts of it may also be revised. The element structure can be completely rebuilt. After refinement and approval of the project by specialists, detailed drawings with numeral designations of dimensions are printed out and transferred for production.
With such capabilities, modern medicine offers high-quality restorations used in the practice of dental professionals and dentists in prosthetics. Those models that are made by new technologies, are characterized by the best properties of fit, biocompatibility, increased strength and aesthetic appearance.
Stages of creating parts
Many dental laboratories use CAD systems, due to which the technicians are engaged in designing with the help of specialized software:
At the very beginning of work in the system, a 3-dimensional display of one or several objects to be restored is displayed on the screen. It is obtained by scanning with an optical scanner. A 3D picture is also obtained when scanning a part made in the standard way – a usual impression.
Sketches are placed in a special program to simulate and complete the restoration. Dental technician does it. The amount of time spent on a full cycle depends on the experience, skill of the employee and the level of difficulty of the task. In some cases, several minutes are spent on all actions, for others it will take more than one hour to achieve a perfect result.
After the process is completed, the designed part is transferred to the milling of an all-ceramic piece in the grinding chamber (on a computerized machine).
For greater naturalness, the restoration is additionally covered with ceramics and placed in oven.
After the material has finally hardened, the prosthesis is smoothed and polished.
The program for dentists in 3D modeling of teeth has proved that it is a very good one – it’s not only speeds up the process of creation, but also makes the result more accurate and improved in performance. If you compare it with traditional manufacturing, it turns out that computer technology does not need a large area, does not pollute the room as a casting method. The master can alone maintain the system, which saves time and financial costs.
What possibilities does the computerized system offer?
The standard dental restorations system is based on casting technology. Prostheses are held on a frame made of cast metal with a ceramic coating. Temporary crowns of zirconium oxide are now gaining popularity. In essence, this is one of the varieties of ceramics. The advantages of such products are their impeccable appearance and high strength. Without a metal base, the model looks more natural. Zirconium oxide is inert. The manifestation of allergies or rejection of materials is almost impossible, which is not excluded in the case of using other materials.
Such a foundation cannot be obtained by casting. In its raw form, the zirconium dioxide bar is a malleable material, vaguely reminiscent of chalk. After firing at 1350 degrees, it becomes durable and hard as ceramics. At thermal influence the detail “sits down” and the crown decreases in size. That is why the manual production of such restorations is undesirable.
The use and production of such prostheses took place only thanks to the introduction of innovative computer technologies Cad/Cam.